Sulfonation of naphthalene, C10H8, results in two products. One product is kinetically favored and predominates in the beginning of the reaction. Because the reaction is reversible, eventually the kinetically slower but thermodynamically favored product predominates. Draw the structure of these two products. (The naphthalene ring is already drawn for you. Do not change the double bond configuration in the given structures.)
The sulfonation of the naphthalene yield 2 products under different conditions:
When the reaction is carried at 80 °C, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid is the major product because it is kinetically favoured product as arenium ion formed in the transition state corresponding to 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid is more stable due to better resonance stabilization.
When the reaction is carried at 160 °C, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid is the major product as it is more stable than 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid because of steric interaction of the sulfonic acid group in 1-position and the hydrogen in 8-position.
The products are shown in image below.
A primary amine contains a five-membered carbon ring. The degree of unsaturation for the five-membered carbon ring is equal to three. In the chemical formula, there are seven carbon atoms. Determine its chemical formula.
To find the chemical formula, first, let's evaluate the given conditions.
1.Is a primary amine:
This means that the amine is connected to a carbon, like NH₂-R
2.The degree of unsaturation of the five-membered carbon ring is equal to three:
One of the degrees of unsaturation is for the five-membered carbon ring, the other two are for pi-bonds. This means that the five-membered carbon ring has 2 pi-bonds inside.
3.There are seven carbon atoms:
Five of these seven carbons are for the carbon ring and the other two are bonded to the primary amine.
From all of the above, we have that the chemical formula is:
C₅H₅-C₂H₄-NH₂ = C₇H₁₁N
I hope it helps you!
Draw the Lewis structure for BrCl3. What are the approximate bond angles about the central atom?a. 60°. b. 90°. c. 109°. d. 120°. e. 180°.
BrCl₃ is an interhalogen compound with a hybridization of sp³d. The approximate bond angles can be predicted from the structure (attached below). Although, the lewis structure might be predicted to be trigonal bipyramidal from the structure, it is however a T-shaped geometry because of it's two lone pairs.
Also, from the structure attached, it can be predicted that the approximate bond angles about the central atom is 120° (360 ÷ 3) since each of the three chlorine atoms is equally spaced about the central atom.
The Lewis structure for BrCl₃ is attached to the image below. The bond angles around the central atom, bromine (Br), are 90 degrees between the bromine and each chlorine atom. Therefore, option B is correct.
A Lewis structure, also known as an electron-dot structure or Lewis dot structure is a diagram that represents the valence electrons of an atom or molecule.
Bromine (Br) is in Group 7A and has 7 valence electrons, while each chlorine (Cl) atom in Group 7A also has 7 valence electrons.
A student is given a sample of a blue copper sulfate hydrate. He weighs the sample in a dry covered porcelain crucible and got a mass of 23.875 g for the crucible, lid, and sample. The mass of the empty crucible and lid was found earlier to be 22.652 g. He then heats the crucible to expel the water of hydration, keeping the crucible at red heat for 10 minutes with the lid slightly ajar. On colling, he finds the mass of crucible, lid, and contents to be 23.403 g. The sample was changed in the process to very light clue anhydrous CuSO4. How many moles of water are present per mole of CuSO4?
There are present 5,5668 moles of water per mole of CuSO₄.
The mass of CuSO₄ anhydrous is:
23,403g - 22,652g = 0,751g.
mass of crucible+lid+CuSO₄ - mass of crucible+lid
As molar mass of CuSO₄ is 159,609g/mol. The moles are:
0,751g × = 4,7052x10⁻³ moles CuSO₄
Now, the mass of water present in the initial sample is:
23,875g - 0,751g - 22,652g = 0,472g.
mass of crucible+lid+CuSO₄hydrate - CuSO₄ - mass of crucible+lid
As molar mass of H₂O is 18,02g/mol. The moles are:
That means that you have 5,5668 moles of water per mole of CuSO₄.
I hope it helps!
Calcium and bromine have formed a bond. Leading up to this, calcium gave up electrons. It was a(n)
Leading up to this, calcium gave up 2 valence electrons and thus was denoted as a cation. These 2 electrons were transferred to bromine, which received an overall negative charge because of the addition of 2 valence electrons in its valence shell, and thus formed a negatively charged ion, an anion.
Both formed an ionic bond, due to the electrostatic charge of attraction between the 2 oppositely charged ions. If many ions of Ca and Br are present and numerous ionic bonds have formed it will undergo an arrangement which is that of an ionic lattice, type of structure.
Which of the following is an example of a compound? water - H2Ooxygen-O2 hydrogen - H2 helium - He
the other options are elements while water is 2 elements