# You have been asked to estimate the beta for a large South Korean company, with large holdings in steel and financial services. A regression of stock returns against the local market index yields a beta of 1.10, but the firm is 15% of the index. You have collected the average betas for global companies in each of the sectors, as well as the average debt equity ratios in each sector: Setor Average Regression Beta Average D/E ratioSteel 1.18 30% Financial Services 1.14 70% The average tax rate for these industries is 40%. In the most recent period, the company you are analyzing earned 70% of its operating income from steel and 30% from financial services. The firm also had a debt/equity ratio of 150%, and a tax rate of 30%. Estimate the levered beta for the company.

The levered beta for the company is 1.93.

Explanation:

Levered beta for the company = (Weight of steel business*levered beta of steel business) + (Weight of financial services business*levered beta of financial services business)

Levered beta of steel business = Unlevered beta of steel sector*[1+(1 - firm's tax rate)*(firm's debt/equity ratio)

levered beta of financial services business = Unlevered beta of financial services sector*[1+(1 - firm's tax rate)*(firm's debt/equity ratio)

Unlevered beta of steel sector = Current beta of steel sector/[1+(1 - avg. tax rate of firms in the sector)*(Avg. debt/equity ratio of the sector)

Unlevered beta of steel sector = 1.18/[1+((1-0.4)*0.3)]

Unlevered beta of steel sector = 1.18/[1+(0.6*0.3)]

Unlevered beta of steel sector = 1.18/(1+0.18)

Unlevered beta of steel sector = 1.18/1.18

Unlevered beta of steel sector = 1

Levered beta of steel business = 1*[1+((1-0.3)*1.5)]

Levered beta of steel business = 1*[1+(0.7*1.5)]

Levered beta of steel business = 1*(1+1.05)

Levered beta of steel business = 1*2.05

Levered beta of steel business = 2.05

Unlevered beta of financial services sector = Current beta of financial services sector/[1+(1 - avg. tax rate of firms in the sector)*(Avg. debt/equity ratio of the sector)

Unlevered beta of financial services sector = 1.14/[1+((1-0.4)*0.7)]

Unlevered beta of financial services sector =1.14/[1+(0.6*0.7)]

Unlevered beta of financial services sector = 1.14/(1+0.42)

Unlevered beta of financial services sector = 1.14/1.42

Unlevered beta of financial services sector = 0.80

Levered beta of financial services business = 0.8*[1+((1-0.3)*1.5)] = 0.8*[1+(0.7*1.5)] = 0.8*(1+1.05) = 0.8*2.05 = 1.64

Levered beta for the company = (0.7*2.05) + (0.3*1.64)

Levered beta for the company = 1.44 + 0.49

Levered beta for the company = 1.93

Hence, the levered beta for the company is 1.93.

To estimate the levered beta for a company with operations in multiple sectors - steel and financial services in this case - you take a weighted average of the sector betas based on earnings distribution to get the unlevered beta. You then adjust for the company's debt/equity ratio and tax rate to get the levered beta. The estimated levered beta for this company is 2.378.

### Explanation:

To estimate the levered beta for the company, we first need to consider the betas for each of the sectors the company operates in - steel and financial services. Given the firm's earnings distribution, the unlevered beta is computed as 0.7*Steel Beta + 0.3*Financial Services Beta = 0.7*1.18 + 0.3*1.14 = 1.16.

Next, to calculate the levered beta, we need to factor in the firm's debt/equity ratio. We use the formula for the levered beta: Levered Beta = Unlevered Beta * (1 + (1 - Tax Rate) * D/E ratio). Substituting the values we have: Levered Beta = 1.16 * (1 + (1 - 0.3) * 1.5) = 1.16 * 2.05 = 2.378. Therefore, the estimated levered beta is 2.378.

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## Related Questions

Which of the following illustrates economies of scale , diseconomies of scale , and constant returns to scale ?Liza's average total cost changes from \$4.50 to \$2.20 when she increases salad production from 7 to 9 an hour. Sam's average total cost changes from \$1.30 to \$2.80 when he increases smoothie production from 5 to 8 gallons an hour. Tina's average total cost remains at \$3 when she increases pizza production from 12 to 13 an hour.

a. Sam faces economies of scale; Liza faces diseconomies of scale; Tina faces constant returns to scale.
b. Sam faces economies of scale; Tina faces diseconomies of scale; Liza faces constant returns to scale.
c. Tina faces economies of scale; Sam faces diseconomies of scale; Liza faces constant returns to scale.
d. Liza faces economies of scale; Sam faces diseconomies of scale; Tina faces constant returns to scal

Answer: d. Liza faces economies of scale; Sam faces diseconomies of scale; Tina faces constant returns to scale

Explanation:

Economies of scale occurs when the increase in production by companies brings about a reduction in cost. Diseconomies of scale is when a rise in production leads to an increase in cost as well. For a constant return to scale, the cost remains the same.

Therefore, the answer will be option D "Liza faces economies of scale; Sam faces diseconomies of scale; Tina faces constant returns to scale".

Slapshot Company makes ice hockey sticks. Last week, direct materials (wood, paint, Kevlar, and resin) costing \$28,000 were put into production. Direct labor of \$28,000 (10 workers x 100 hours x \$28 per hour) was incurred. Manufacturing overhead equaled \$55,000. By the end of the week, the company had manufactured 5,600 hockey sticks.1.Calculate the total prime cost for last week.\$2. Calculate the per-unit prime cost. Round your answer to the nearest cent.\$ per unit3. Calculate the total conversion cost for last week.\$4. Calculate the per-unit conversion cost. Round your answer to the nearest cent.\$ per unit

Part 1. Calculate the total prime cost for last week

Direct materials                    28,000

Prime Cost                             56,000

Part 2. Calculate the per-unit prime cost

per-unit prime cost=\$56,000/5,600

=\$10.00

Part 3. Calculate the total conversion cost for last week

Direct labor                                 28,000

Total conversion cost                83,000

Part 4. Calculate the per-unit conversion cost.

per-unit conversion cost=\$83,000/5,600

=\$14.82

Explanation:

Part 1. Calculate the total prime cost for last week

Prime Cost = Direct Materials + Direct Labor

Part 2. Calculate the per-unit prime cost

Per Unit Prime Cost = total prime cost/number of units manufactured

Part 3. Calculate the total conversion cost for last week

Conversion Cost = Direct Labor + Manufacturing Overheads

Part 4. Calculate the per-unit conversion cost.

Per-unit conversion cost =Total Conversion Cost / number of units manufactured

The total prime cost last week was \$56,000, and the per-unit prime cost was \$10. The total conversion cost was \$83,000, and the per-unit conversion cost was \$14.82.

### Explanation:

The prime cost is calculated by adding the costs of the direct materials and direct labor. Therefore, the total prime cost for Slapshot Company last week was \$28,000 (direct materials) + \$28,000 (direct labor) = \$56,000.

The per-unit prime cost is calculated by dividing the total prime cost by the number of units produced. Therefore, it is \$56,000 ÷ 5,600 hockey sticks = \$10 per unit (rounded to the nearest cent).

The conversion cost is calculated by adding the cost of direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Therefore, the total conversion cost last week was \$28,000 (direct labor) + \$55,000 (overhead) = \$83,000.

The per-unit conversion cost is calculated by dividing the total conversion cost by the number of units produced. Therefore, it is \$83,000 ÷ 5,600 hockey sticks = <-strong>\$14.82 per unit (rounded to the nearest cent).

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Rent controls force landlords to price apartments below the equilibrium price level. An immediate effect is a shortage (excess demand) of apartments, because the quantity of apartments demanded is greater than the quantity supplied at the regulated price. When cities prevent landlords from charging market rents, which of the following are common long-run outcomes? Check all that apply.a.The future supply of rental housing units increases.
b.Efficient use of housing space results.
c.Nonprice methods of rationing emerge.
d.The quantity of available rental housing units falls.

Explanation: The rental market must have a free operation, that is, supply and demand have to set their price level, especially since, in this case, the product is not fungible, that is, it is not interchangeable. Each floor varies in location, number of square meters, construction qualities, etc. You cannot set a fixed reference price. Another of the most repeated consequences by experts is that the limitation will cause a reduction in supply, but demand will not go down, which will necessarily lead to greater tension in rental prices.

Fortune Company's direct materials budget shows the following cost of materials to be purchased for the coming three months: January February March Material purchases \$ 13,180 \$ 15,290 \$ 12,110 Payments for purchases are expected to be made 50% in the month of purchase and 50% in the month following purchase. The December Accounts Payable balance is \$7,900. The expected January 31 Accounts Payable balance is:______________.

The expected January 31 Accounts Payable balance is \$6,590

Explanation:

The December Accounts Payable balance is \$7,900 - this is the 50% purchase amount in December and will be paid in January.

In January, Fortune Company will pay 50% purchase amount in December and 50% purchase amount in January.

Expected payment = \$7,900 + 50% x \$13,180 = \$14,490

At January 31, the expected Accounts Payable balance:

\$13,180 x 50% = \$6,590

The expected Accounts Payable balance for Fortune Company at the end of January is \$10,540, taking into account the payables carried over from December and half of January's purchases.

### Explanation:

The question is regarding the calculation of the expected Accounts Payable balance at the end of January for Fortune Company. The company's payment schedule shows a split of 50% payment in the month of purchase and 50% in the following month. To compute the January 31 Accounts Payable, we need to consider the December Accounts Payable which is to be paid in January (50% of \$7,900 = \$3,950), and half of January's purchase (\$13,180) which will amount to \$6,590. Hence the expected January 31 Accounts Payable is: \$3,950 (December's payable) + \$6,590 (January's payable) = \$10,540.

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4. The finest veal is _______-fed. A. field
B. grass
C. grain
D. milk

The finest veal is milk-fed.

Explanation:

The finest veal is milk-fed.

Option - D

Explanation:

The meat of calves or younger male dairy breeds is said to be veal whereas the meat of older ones is called beef. Since the male calves cannot lactate, they are used for veal. In Culinary, the veal is mostly used in the form of cutlets, like cotoletta (Italian) or Wiener Schnitzel, the famous Austrian dish.

The majority of veal meat produced in the US is from milk-fed calves. The milk-fed veal has a firm, velvety and fine appearance with ivory or creamy pink in color.

Cost of Goods Manufactured Slapshot Company makes ice hockey sticks. During the month of June, the company purchased \$132,000 of materials. Also during the month of June, Slapshot Company incurred direct labor cost of \$113,000 and manufacturing overhead of \$187,000. Inventory information is as follows: June 1 June 30 Materials \$48,000 \$45,000 Work in process 65,000 63,000 Required: 1. Calculate the cost of goods manufactured for the month of June. \$ 2. Calculate the cost of one hockey stick assuming that 1,900 sticks were completed during June. \$ per hockey stick

1. Cost of goods manufactured =437,000.00

2. cost per hockey stick= \$230

Explanation:

Total product cost: The sum of direct material cost, direct labour cost and overhead.

Direct material cost is the costs of all specific materials required to product a product. For example, cost of the flour, sugar used to produce cakes. Where there exist inventory of materials at the beginning and end of a period, the cost of material used is calculated as follows:

Cost of material used is calculated as = Opening stock + Purchases - closing stock

Direct labour cost : the cost of the man hours used directly for the purpose of production. The cost of hours paid to the tailors for making garments in a clothing factory . It is arrived as the active hours used for production × wage rate per hour.

Overhead : Sum of the indirect costs. These include expenditutures on materials , labour and expenses incurred not specifically for a particular product. Example are cost of toiletries used in a bakery, salaries of the security guard , rent of the bakery, e.t.c.

Opening working in progress represents accumulated production cost incurred on goods for which production commenced in a prior period but was not concluded. These items will need to be continued in the following period, hence further production costs would be incurred.

Closing working in progress this represents the cost production work for which work is yet to be completed as the end of the current period.

Working in Progress is adjusted on the production cost in the current period as follows to determine the production cost of the completed units as thus:

Cost of the goods manufactured =

opening WIP + production cost incurred in the period - closing W.I.P.

So we are not set to apply these explanation

Direct materials (132000+48,000-45,000)     135,000.00

Direct labour                                                  113,000.00

less closing W.I.P                                             (63,000.00)

Cost of goods manufactured                                 437,000.00

Cost of one hockey stick =  cost of good manufactured / Hocky sticks produced

=\$ 437,000/1900 sticks

Cost per hockey stick=  \$230

The cost of goods manufactured for Slapshot Company in June is \$429,000. The cost of one hockey stick, given that 1,900 hockey sticks were produced in June, is approximately \$225.79.

### Explanation:

To determine the cost of goods manufactured, we need to add purchases, direct labor costs, and manufacturing overheads then subtract the change in materials inventory. Here, the purchases are \$132,000, direct labor cost of \$113,000, and manufacturing overhead is \$187,000. The materials inventory decreased by \$3,000 (\$48,000 - \$45,000). So, the total cost of goods manufactured is \$429,000 (\$132,000+\$113,000+\$187,000-\$3,000).

To find the cost of one hockey stick, we just need to divide the cost of goods manufactured by the number of items produced. Therefore, if 1,900 hockey sticks were completed during June, each hockey stick costs \$225.79 (\$429,000 / 1,900).