As we drive an automobile, we dont't think about the chemical consumed and produced. Prepare a list of the principal chemicals consumed and produced during the operation of an automobile.
In an internal combustion engine operational in automobiles, fuels are converted into mechanical energy in order to move pistons.
The basic reaction in automobile engines is combustion.
Principal chemicals consumed Chemicals produced
Petroleum Carbon dioxide
In diesel engines, production of particulate carbon is also produced.
Automobiles such as car, truck, motorbikes run on petrol or diesel. While operating these automobiles, combustion of diesel or petrol takes place which in turn requires oxygen for the process to occur.
Operation of the automobiles consumes oxygen, petrol or diesel and releases harmful chemicals like carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and many more. These chemicals pollutes the air and also affects the survival of living organisms by affecting the respiratory organs.
1. What structural property of sodium 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate makes it very soluble in water? 2. You will have to look up the structure of this compound and comment on why it is water-soluble. Simply stating that it's polar
1. Sodium 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate makes it very soluble in water as it contains a hydrate salt sodium sulfate .
2. In the structure of this compound, sodium sulphate is polar in nature.
The molecular structure of sodium 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate is .
The polar part of the structure sodium sulfate makes sodium 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate a hydrate salt. Salt are polar and are usually soluble in water.
Find more information about Molecular formula here:
Answer: it contains a hydrate salt sodium sulfate NaO4S.
4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate is a sodium salt. Sodium sulfate is Polar.
The molecular structure of sodium 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate is
The polar part of the structure sodium sulfate NaO4S makes sodium 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate a hydrate salt. Salt are polar and are usually soluble in water.
A cylinder is filled with 10.0L of gas and a piston is put into it. The initial pressure of the gas is measured to be 96.0kPa. The piston is now pulled up, expanding the gas, until the gas has a final volume of 45.0L. Calculate the final pressure of the gas. Be sure your answer has the correct number of significant digits.
The final pressure of the gas is:- 21.3 kPa
Using Boyle's law
V₁ = 10.0 L
V₂ = 45.0 L
P₁ = 96.0 kPa
P₂ = ?
Using above equation as:
The final pressure of the gas is:- 21.3 kPa
Carbon and oxygen combine to form the molecular compound CO2, while silicon and oxygen combine to form a covalent network solid with the formula unit SiO2. Explain the difference in bonding between the two group 4A elements and oxygen. g
See explanation below.
Both carbon and silicon are members of group 4A(now group 14) i n the periodic table. Carbon is the first member of the group. CO2 is a gas while SiO2 is a solid. In SiO2, there are single bonds between silicon and oxygen and the geometry around the central atom is tetrahedral while in CO2, there are double carbon-oxygen bonds and the geometry around the central atom is linear. CO2 molecules are discrete and contain only weak vanderwaals forces.
Again, silicon bonds to oxygen via its 3p orbital while carbon bonds to oxygen via a 2p orbital. As a result of this, there will be less overlap between the pi orbitals of silicon and that of oxygen. This is why tetrahedral bonds are formed with oxygen leading to a covalent network solid rather than the formation of a silicon-oxygen pi bond. A covalent network solid is known to be made up of a network of atoms of the same or different elements connected to each other continuously throughout the structure by covalent bonds.
In SiO2, each silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Each corner is shared with another tetrahedron. SiO2 forms an infinite three dimensional structure and melts at a very high temperature.
Carbon and oxygen form a molecular compound CO2 with weaker covalent bonds, while silicon and oxygen form a covalent network solid SiO2 with stronger, three-dimensional covalent bonds.
The difference in bonding between carbon and oxygen compared to silicon and oxygen is due to the different nature of their chemical bonds. In the case of carbon and oxygen, they form a molecular compound CO2, where carbon and oxygen atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds. This is because carbon and oxygen have similar electronegativities, so they can share electrons equally. The covalent bonds in CO2 are relatively weak, allowing the compound to exist as a gas at room temperature and pressure.
On the other hand, silicon and oxygen form a covalent network solid with the formula unit SiO2, known as quartz. In this case, silicon and oxygen atoms are covalently bonded in a three-dimensional network structure, where each silicon atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms and each oxygen atom is bonded to two silicon atoms. This network structure gives SiO2 its high melting point and hardness, making it a solid at room temperature and pressure.
In summary, the difference in bonding between carbon and oxygen compared to silicon and oxygen is that carbon and oxygen form a molecular compound with weaker covalent bonds, while silicon and oxygen form a covalent network solid with stronger, three-dimensional covalent bonds.
Calculate the moles of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) in a 55.66 g sample of benzoic acid
Molar mass of Benzoic Acid =122.1gmol −1 Morality of Ba(OH) 2=0.120mol/L2E6H5COOH+Ba(OH) 2→2H2+Ba(C6H5COO) 2 From the given Molar mass, we find the number of moles of Benzoic acid and Barium hydrocide. Moles of Benzoic acid = MolarMass GivenMass= 122.10.2=0.00163 Moles Moles of Ba(OH) 2= 20.00163=0.000815 Now, Morality of Ba(OH) 2= LitreofSolutionmolesofsolute=0.120M is required 1 Litre, So 0.000815M is required in 0.1201 ×0.000815 =0.00679=6.
Lead(II) sulfide was once used in glazing earthenware. It will also react with hydrogen peroxide to form lead(II) sulfate and water. How many grams of hydrogen peroxide are needed to react completely with 265 g of lead(II) sulfide?
As per the balanced equation the amount of hydrogen peroxide required completely reacts with 265 g of lead sulphide is 150.6 g.
What is hydrogen peroxide ?
Hydrogen peroxide is covalent compound formed by two hydrogen and two oxygens. It is used as an oxidising agent. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with lead sulphide to give lead sulphate and water and the balanced reaction is given below:
As per the balanced equation 4 moles of hydrogen peroxide is required to react with one mole of lead sulphide. One mole of lead sulphide is 239.30 g and one mole of hydrogen peroxide is 34 g/mol
4 moles of hydrogen peroxides weighs 4 ×34 = 136 g. Thus, 136 g of hydrogen peroxide is needed for 239.3 g of PbS. Therefore, the mass of hydrogen peroxide needed to react with 265 g of PbS is calculated as follows:
mass = (136 ×265 g ) / 239.3
= 150.6 g.
Hence, amount of hydrogen peroxide required completely reacts with 265 g of lead sulphide is 150.6 g.
To find more about hydrogen peroxide, refer the link below;