# (II) To make a secure fit, rivets that are larger than the rivet hole are often used and the rivet is cooled (usually in dry ice) before it is placed in the hole. A steel rivet 1.872cm in diameter is to be placed in a hole 1.870cm in diameter in a metal at 22°C. To what temperature must the rivet be cooled if it is to fit in the hole

Given:

Rivet diameter, = 1.872 cm

Hole diameter, = 1.870 cm

Temperature,   = 22 °C

Formula Used:

where,

= coefficient of linear expansion

= change in diameter =

= change in temperature =

Solution:

we know that coefficient of linear expansion of steel,   =

Using the above formula :

= \frac{1.870 - 1.872}{1.872\times \T_{2} - T_{1}}[/tex]

=   \frac{1.870 - 1.872}{12\times 10^{-6}}}[/tex]

Therefore, the rivet must be cooled to

The question involves the concept of thermal expansion in Physics. By knowing the initial diameter of the rivet and hole, as well as the ambient temperature, we can use the thermal expansion formula to calculate the temperature to which the steel rivet must be cooled to fit into the hole.

### Explanation:

The subject in question pertains to Physics and specifically to the concept of thermal expansion. This indicates how objects (in this case, a steel rivet) tend to change in volume or shape as a response to a change in temperature. The diameter of the rivet when cooled will decrease slightly, allowing it to fit into the smaller hole.

To find the temperature to which the rivet needs to be cooled, we require knowledge of the thermal expansion coefficient of steel, which (for generalization) can be averaged to around 0.000012 (1/°C). The formula to calculate the change in diameter (Δd) is:

Δd = α * d * ΔT

where α is the coefficient of linear expansion, d is the original diameter, and ΔT is the change in temperature. Knowing the initial diameter of the rivet and the hole it must fit into, together with the ambient temperature (22°C), we can rearrange this formula to find the cooling temperature needed for the rivet to fit into the hole.

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## Related Questions

Calculate the molality of a 35.4 % (by mass) aqueous solution of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) (35.4 % means 35.4 g of H3PO4in 100 g of solution)

3.6124 m/kg

Explanation:

Molality is calculated as moles of solute (mol) divided by kilogram of solvent (kg). Here, we can find these numbers by using the 35.4%, which gives us  35.4 g of H3PO4 and 100 g of solution to work with.

To go from grams to moles for the phosphoric acid, you need to find the molar mass of the compound or element and divide the grams of the compound or element by that molar mass.

Here, the molar mass for phosphoric acid is 97.9952 g/mol. The equation would look like this:

35.4 g x 1 mol / 97.9952 g = 0.3612422 mol

Next, the 100 g of solvent can easily be converted to 0.1 kg of solvent.

To find the molality, divide the moles of solute and kilograms of solution.

0.3612422 mol / 0.1 kg = 3.6124 m/kg

An element is to a __ as an organ is to a ___

An element is to an atomas an organ is to a cell. Just as atoms are the fundamental building blocks of elements, cells are the basic units of living organisms.

Elements are composed of atoms, each characterized by a specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Similarly, organs are composed of cells, each with specialized structures and functions that collectively contribute to the overall function of the organ.

The analogy highlights the hierarchical organization of matter and life, emphasizing how complex structures are formed from simpler components.

Just as elements combine to create diverse substances, cells come together to form intricate organs essential for life processes.

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An element is to a compound as an organ is to tissue

Explanation:

Dinitrogen monoxide has a structural formula of NNO and requires resonance structures in order to draw the Lewis structures of the molecule. Based on formal charge distributions, themostsignificant (stable) resonance structure for this molecule exhibits the order of formal charges for the 1st N, the central N, and the O atoms, respectively, as:A. 0,+1,-1
B. -1,+1,0
C. -2,+3,-1
D. 0,0,0

Three resonance structures contribute to the structure of dinitrogen monoxide.

The resonance structure is invoked when a single structure can not sufficiently explain all the bonding properties of a compound. All the various contributing structures contribute to the final structure of the compound but not all to the same degree.

There are three resonance structures of dinitrogen monoxide. The most stable structure is always the structure that has the formal charges as -1, +1 and zero as shown.

A. 0, +1, -1

Explanation:

You can draw the lewis structure for NNO 3 ways: With two double bonds N=N=O, with a triple bond between the N and O and single bond between the two N's, or a triple bond between the two N's and a single bond between the N and O.

The goal is to have formal charges that are as small as possible, to have no identical formal charges on adjacent atoms, and to have the most negative formal charge on the most electronegative atom. The most stable structure is the one with the triple bond between the two N's because it gives the formal charges 0, 1, and -1 respectively. Unlike the other two structures, the negative formal charge is correctly placed on O, the most electronegative atom.

Rank the following elements from smallest to
largest atomic radius: Fr, F, Ge, Ru?

1. Flourine, 2 Ruthenium, 3  Germanium, 4 Francium

Explanation:

4, 1, 3, 2 is the order it’ll go in by what you’ve given us

What forces of molecular attraction is weakest?A. Dipole interaction
B. Dispersion
C. Hydrogen bond
D. Single covalent bond

The weakest force of molecular attraction is dispersion.

(Option B)

### What is  Dispersion forces?

The dispersion force is also known as London dispersion forces is a weak intermolecular force.

These dispersion forces arise due to temporary fluctuations in electron distribution within molecules, creating temporary dipoles.

These temporary dipoles induce similar dipoles in neighboring molecules, resulting in attractive forces between them.

Dispersion forces are present in all molecules, regardless of their polarity or the presence of other types of bonds or interactions.

However, they tend to be weaker compared to other intermolecular forces, such as dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds.